China is the first and only country that shares a border with 14 neighbouring countries and has a border dispute with everyone. A military report says that China uses Salami slicing military tactics to create conflicts and claim its sovereignty over the border area of neighbouring countries. That it is using presently in the India China border dispute in Ladakh. This article will give a glimpse on China Five Finger Policy.
After the 1940 decade, there was a civil war in China. After this red revolution, Mao Zedong, the founder of the People’s Republic of China, has emerged as the supreme leader of China. At that time Mao said that we have to occupy Tibet which is the palm of the right hand and after that, we go for the Five Finger region that has Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and North East Frontier Association (NEFA, modern Indian province of Arunachal Pradesh). These are the region which China wants to capture, and that is called China Finger Five policy.
About Panchsheel Agreement & the root of China Five Finger Policy
In 1954, there was a Panchsheel agreement between India and China on peaceful relations. Under this agreement, India accepted Chinese rule in Tibet, but after the Dalai Lama took refuge in India in 1959, relations between the two countries started to get tense. This became the main reason for the India-China war.
The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China managed to advance and grab tracts of lands in AksaiChin, which mostly remained Indian territories till then. China wants to control 5 Fingers (Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan) which is the China Five Finger policy. Since last 16 years, he has been doing such nefarious activities in these places. Now he has increased his activities in Ladakh. Currently, China is under international pressure because of Wuhan because each country is blaming China for the corona epidemic.
In the Lok Sabha’s reply on 11 March this year, Minister of State for External Affairs V. Muralitharan had said that China claims 90 thousand square kilometres of Arunachal Pradesh. Whereas, about 38 thousand square km of Ladakh is under Chinese occupation.
Apart from this, on 2 March 1963, under an agreement between China and Pakistan, Pakistan gave 5 thousand 180 square km of PoK to China. If considered, the area that India currently occupies is not as much as that of Switzerland. Overall, China has held 43,180 square km of India, while the area of Switzerland is 41,285 square km. Below are the regions of China Five Finger Policy.
First one is Sikkim
When India got independence in 1947, Sikkim is under British rule special status as there was a rule of King, and after 1947 special status remained in New India. But in 1975 after the end of the Chogyal rule, Sikkim ultimately merged with India. After this, a referendum was held in Sikkim, and the result will come with 97.5% vote in favour of India. After this, the Constitution Amendment Bill to create the 22nd state of India was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 23 April 1975 and passed on 23 April.
Since then, Sikkim has settled an essential part of India. But Chinese forces always try to infiltrate or maintain mobilization along the border and create India China border dispute.
Second is Bhutan
The fourth finger of the China Five Finger Policy is Bhutan. Bhutan is a peaceful and beautiful country at the eastern end of India. China has been claiming it for a long time. It comes in his five fingers strategy, that is, he has to capture Bhutan one day or the other.
Third is Arunachal Pradesh
The two countries have a 3,500 kilometre (2,174 mi) long border which is a part of China Five Finger policy. Due to the India China border dispute, both countries have stood face-to-face on the battlefield in 1962, but the India China war there is still dispute over some areas on the border, which sometimes causes tension. Arunachal Pradesh achieved full state status on 20 February 1987. Till 1972 it had been referred to as North-East Frontier Agency. It got the status of Union Territory with effect from 20 January 1972. On 15th of August 1975, the elected Legislative Assembly is being formed, and the first Council of Ministers took over.
The McMahon Line between China and India is considered the international boundary line, but China rejects it. China says that a large part of Tibet is with India. After the annexation of Tibet in the late 1950s, China annexed about 38 thousand square kilometres of Aksai China. These areas were associated with Ladakh. China built National Highway 219 here that connects its eastern province of Xinjiang. India considers it an illegal possession.
Fourth is Nepal
Nepal is the fourth finger of the China Five Finger policy. At one time Nepal used to claim that China is its worst enemy country, because the way it has captured Tibet, is very hurt by it. However, China has always claimed a large area of Nepal. At that time, Nepal had requested military help to India to avoid the fear of China.
India had been continuously helping Nepal in every way for the last 70 years, but now the communist government of Nepal has started sitting in China’s dock and declaring India as its enemy. However, Nepal has no idea that the biggest threat that China has been seriously pursuing the strategy of Five fingers is now hovering over it.
The last one is Ladakh
Ladakh was won by Zorawar Singh, who was an integral part of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s army of Kashmir in 1834. Then in the year 1842, Ladakh was added to the Dogra dynasty by suppressing all other revolts. After 1850, the British rule out Ladakh and Europe increased interest, then by 1885 Leh was made the headquarters of the mission of the Moravian Church.
After the independence of the country in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir decided to merge with Hindustan. In this way, Ladakh also became an integral part of India as part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
As we had an India China war in 1962 after this by performing on the China Five Finger policy, The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China managed to advance and grab tracts of lands in AksaiChin, which mostly remained Indian territories till then. That why a recent dispute on the Ladakh region of India China border at Galwan Hills by performing on Five Finger policy and trying to expanding it.
To know more about India and China Border Disputes, click on the link.