The India China border disputes is definitely not new, and it’s disputed on two-lines. The primary is that the Jhonson line which is in Ladakh and the second is that the McMahon line which on the eastern
part of India. It originated in the east part in 1826 when Britisher conquest and control over Manipur and Assam from the Burmese, following the primary Anglo-Burmese War.
India China Border Disputes During 19th Century
In 1834 in Jammu and Kashmir, when Raja Gulab Singh together with armies captured Ladakh, under the suzerainty of the Sikh Empire. Then in 1842, a treaty signed between Raja Gulab Singh and Tibetans agreeing to stay to the “old and established frontiers”, which were left unspecified afterward.
In 1846 Britishers defeated the Sikh and Raja Gulab Singh after which Jammu and Kashmir with Ladakh go under their suzerainty. Then in 1865, W. H. Jhonson, who is then the surveyor within the British government, proposed the “Jhonson line” which also include Aksai Chin in Jammu and Kashmir. This line never accepted by Chinese, but well recognised by international communities because of the border of India and China. This is how India China border disputes started.
Early 20th Century
In 1913, British India, China, and Tibet attended a conference resolving the borders between British India, Tibet, and China. While all representatives initiated the agreement, but later Beijing against the proposed boundary and didn’t ratify it. The foreign secretary of British Indian government, Henry McMahon, who had involved the proposal, decided to bypass the Chinese and settle the border bilaterally by negotiating directly with Tibet.
British India has stated that the Himalayas were the traditional boundaries of the Indian subcontinent, and thus should be the fashionable boundaries of India, while it’s the position of the Chinese government that the disputed area within the Himalayas has been geographically and culturally a part of Tibet since past. Within the late 1930s that British began to use the McMahon Line on official maps of the region.
After Independence of India
Now, wondering why is that the Chinese army disputing at the Ladakh border? This is often because, in 1949, Mao the founding father of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), a communist state threatens Tibet with “liberation”.
In 1951, Tibetan leaders were then forced to sign the “Seventeen Point Agreement” treaty, which is dictated by China. This treaty posses to ensure the Tibetan autonomy and respect the Buddhism religion, but it also allows Chinese civil and headquarters to be established in Lhasa (Tibet’s capital).
Upon independence in 1947, the govt of India used the Johnson Line because the basis for its official boundary within the west, including the Aksai Chin. On 1st of July 1954, India’s first Prime Minister Nehru definitively stated the Indian position, claiming that Aksai Chin had been a part of the Indian Ladakh region for hundreds of years which the border (as defined by the Johnson Line) was non-negotiable.
China constructed roads in 1956-57 that passes through many places of Aksai Chin which connects Xinjiang and Tibet. The road published by Chinese maps in 1958. In 1959, there’s an uprising in Lhasa, and therefore the 14th Dalai Lama and his ministers flee to India. Above could also be the rationale with the expansion strategy of China which converted into border disputes and put India and China into war front in 1962 and resulted within the formation of Line of Actual Control (LAC).
These border disputes which do not have a transparent history of Indo-China Border have caused many incidents like 15 June 2020 which sacrifice many brave soldiers from each side.
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